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Foundation Failure Remedies and Causes - Top 5

Foundation Failure may occur due to many reasons, starting from the bad soil condition to Structural faults, but among the many few are much more important than other, and also at the same time they are much more easy to control.
Foundation Failure
The way how a foundation fails if known properly then their remedies can also be found, and the reasons stated below are of self explanatory nature in how to prevent failure of foundation. Now let us start one by one and also built some concept about them.

Failure of Foundation due to exceeding of Bearing Capacity of Soil :-

Bearing Capacity of the soil (rather say Ultimate Bearing Capacity) is Ultimate Load Intensity that a soil can take without having any Shear Failure of the Soil. This Bearing Capacity is the factor upon which the size of the footing in terms of its size as Length and Breadth or Diameter depends. A Foundation/ Footing of a structure must have sufficient size that the intensity of load coming through that footing from the structure to the soil beneath shall not increase the bearing capacity of that soil. If the Bearing capacity of soil is low or load acting is heavy and we put a footing size comparatively small than what is required then the result will be that the load intensity (i.e. load per unit area say KN/sq.m. etc.) induced on the soil may be higher than the bearing capacity of the soil, hence soil will undergo a Shear Failure. For being at safe side for  determination of footing size it is a practice to use Safe Bearing Capacity instead of Ultimate Bearing Capacity to have Margin of safety against any accidental loading and also unusual behavior of the soil of varying its bearing capacity. Safe Bearing Capacity is nothing but Ultimate Bearing Capacity divided by a suitable factor of safety generally ranging from 2 to 4.

Failure of Foundation due to Sudden Withdrawn of Moisture from Soil :-

This is one of the very very very important reason which most of the Engineer are not concern about and neglects very much. Moisture withdrawn can happen in many ways
a) By Pumping out water from the adjoining well
b) By Dewatering adjoining Pond
c) Lowering of Ground Water Table previously which was very near to the ground.

Soil in most of the general cases consist of Three Phase System that is Soil Solid+Water+Air and prior to Full Consolidation of the soil which takes a verrryyy long rime the Pore Water within the soil also takes up the super structural loads coming to the soil.
Suppos for an example there is a pond full of water adjoining to a building, and you are dewatering that pond, then the following things will happen leading to the failure of foundation of the adjoining building.

i) Water is pumped out from the pond, hence pond which is like a big depression on the ground will be empty or with very less water.
ii) Due to the pumping out huge quantity of water, the previous pressure of the pond water towards the soil around the Bank of the pond will drastically reduced.
ii) Surrounding soil of the pond which in this as it is having adjoining building, the soil around and below the foundation of the building or any other such structure will be in high pressure zone of pore water as compared to the pond having no or very less water.
iv) Due to this water pressure difference between the pond and its surrounding soil, Pore water from the surrounding soil will start laterally flowing through the soil towards the Pond and try to fill in the pond.
v) Therefore, pore water from side and bottom of the foundation soil is being withdrawn and moving towards the pond continuously.
vi) As the soil generally consist of Soil Solid+Water+Air and super structural load on soil is borne by the both Soil Solid and Pore Water, after withdrawn of pore water it will create voids within the soil system around and at the bottom of the foundation soil, causing subsidence of the soil along withe supporting structure on with and leading to a Foundation Failure.

 It is very much dangerous as the withdrawn of moisture in the above phenomenon may not be same at all points around and bottom of the foundation and will lead to Differential Settlements which is very much dangerous. It is many times due to the above phenomenon seen that floor cracks, Roads collapses hen an adjoining water body is being dewatered.

Failure of Foundation due to Differential or Unequal Settlement :-

Differential Settlement or Unequal Settlement  is the worst case that can occur and which surely leads to a massive failure of foundation involving costly restoration works.
First of all we must understand what is Differential Settlement? When the portion of the soil underside a structure subsides or settles in different magnitude under different places of the structure causing the supported structure also to subside along with the soil is known as the Differential Settlement or Unequal Settlement. Now as due to this different magnitude of settlement at different portion of the structure occurs or in other words one portion of the structure settles more or less than the another point it creates a huge amount of diagonal stress to be induced into the structure due to the super structural load as they tend to settle along with the soil on which it rests. These Diagonal Stresses so induced results in cracking.
Crack so develop may be very wide also and may go on increasing as the settlement goes on continuing. This leads to the instability in the structure and ultimately Collapse or Failure of the Structure. 

Failure of Foundation due to Uneven Progress and Pattern of Construction:-

Though most of the people neglect this point, but it is very important not to load the soil unevenly by uneven progress and pattern of construction, or in other words the structure should be constructed or raised uniformly that is we must work on the entire area of a particular structure say building upto certain level of height, after when upto certain level throughout the area has been constructed then only we must proceed to the raising more height.

I know you are not understanding what I was trying to say, Okay lets make it simplified with an example.
Suppose a RCC Framed Structure Building is being constructed having having 10 Nos. of Columns along x axis and 4 Nos. of column along y axis, that is total of 40 columns. Now, Uniformly progress and pattern of construction means that all columns should be raised simultaneously, and step by step construction should be done simultaneously at all parts. say first all 40 columns should be founded, then all 40 columns should be raised upto plinth beam then all 40 columns upto lintel bottom level and so on. It should not be non-uniform like say out of 40 columns you are founding 25 columns or so haphazardly at different locations, and then raising only those up plinth beam, then upto lintel bottom and son on, and after those you are starting construction by founding of remaining 15 columns. If non-uniform pattern of construction will be adopted then soil will have to bear different quantum of loads at different pockets packed closer and ultimately these uneven stress distribution in the soil mass may lead to the shear  failure of the soil, which also translates as failure of the structure as a whole.

Failure of Foundation due to Movement of Adjoining Soil :-

Foundation failure will also occur if soil surrounding the foundation is moved away. This may happen if excavation has been resorted to very near an existing foundation, like in case of a new building is being constructed just by side of an existing building structure. due to an open excavation the soil by the sides of the old foundation will get loosened and move away, reducing the lateral support which was being provided by the soil to that existing foundation. as the lateral support reduces, the existing foundation may tend to slide, and also the soil from below the foundation which is actually directly bearing the load may get eroded due to lack of lateral support from the surrounding soil, and this whole sequence of outcomes will definitely cause a massive failure of the foundation and the structure which is being supported. This siyuation can be prevented by providing adequate numbers of Sheet Piling along the sides and upto certain depth below the deepest point of the shallow foundation, so that even the soil from the below the foundation cannot escape away, in fact move.

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Importance Of Water In Concrete - Water and Concrete Relation

Today I will discuss about importance of water in concrete at different stages of it . I’ve seen that most of the workers, contractors if not all and some of the Engineers tends to ignore the importance of Water at various stages of concrete. The main reason behind this I think is that they are not aware of the fact that water plays a dramatically important role in concreting operations, as it is a kind of maker or breaker. Also students tends to take the matter lightly, but they must understand that actually it is a single most important factor which can change the quality of concrete even no matter how much extra cement you put into for the compensating purpose.
Let us first understand when and how water comes in contact with the concrete. The concrete itself is a conglomeration of Water, Binder, Fine Aggregate and Coarse Aggregate. Binder in case of Cement Concrete which one is in use in modern day construction is Cement, which may be of any type like OPC, PPC, PSC etc. as Fine Aggregate generally  Sand is used, and as Coarse Aggregate Crushed Stone or Stone Chips is used.  Now Water in concrete comes in two different stages,
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Online Civil Engineering Tutorials

First of all wish all of you a Very Very Happy Holi the festival of colours. It has been long since my last post, and I feel really sorry for my fellow readers who were regular during the past few months. I am really sorry guys, it is due to the extreme work pressure I'm going through in my job, I hope you understand it well. Okay fine, it is better to start afresh from where I left, first of all I will finish the incomplete post of getting the Government Jobs Tricks at 2016. Then I'm up for new challenges and posts every alternative day guaranteed, more ever I'm planning for two new things which are going to be a blessing for the budding Civil Engineers, and also to the Engineers working in the field.

Civil Engineering Tutorial

My Plans :-

  • First of all I'm going to start a new section in Youtube, where I will be posting videos showing the Tutorials on Drafting and Structural Designing Software
  • In that very Youtube page I'll be also guiding you guys specially to the students about various topics of Civil Engineering by means of Video Lectures, Like Designing Surveying, Construction Estimate etc. that is Online Civil Engineering Video Tutorials 

AMIE or BE BTech which is Tough

Engineering Degree
A Fact that if A.M.I.E. is to be De-Recognized then almost 85% of the Engineering Colleges must be Shut down and De-Recognized prior to that , After reading the following I think one will be able to take proper decision.
A.M.I.E. vs B.E./B.TECH.

1) In A.M.I.E. one has to write a paper of Full Paper of 100 Marks in 3hr There is no Internal Marks, and Pass Marks 50
In B.E./B.TECH. one has to write a paper of 70 Marks, 30 Marks is of Internal Assessment of the College, Pass Marks is 40 out of Total 100 (70+30), In Most of the Colleges one can easily get 20 out of 30 even without writing anything in the Internal, that means they only need 20 Marks out of 100 Virtually to pass a Subject.

2) In A.M.I.E. Question Standards are much much tougher than B.E./B.TECH. as most of the papers are set by prominent Professional and Person from Reputed Institutions/Universities . It is very hard to even get pass marks. All questions are in depth and unified all over the country.
In B.E./B.TECH. questions are set by different universities, questions not being uniform all over the country. If the Question Standards are compared with that of the A.M.I.E. , B.E./B.TECH Questions will fall as sub-standard.

3) In A.M.I.E. one has to give exam not at Home Centre, so there is no chance of Cheating and Getting Marcy, hence the Exams are Clean, and the marks secured by students are due to their own knowledge, not by copying or cheating
In B.E./B.TECH. one has to give exam in the Home Centre, and lots of Cheating in the Exam Hall goes on, and as the students are of their own college they tend to Marcy them and even allow them intentionally, hence most of them have High Marks but Shallow Knowledge on the Subjects.
Advantages of A.M.I.E. over B.E./B.TECH.

4) In the case of the most of the Diploma Engineers who are employed in different Companies and Government Sector they are not able to Pursue Degree in regular B.E./B.TECH. due to their Day Job can Carry on their Degree through A.M.I.E. , if A.M.I.E. is De-recognized then the Diploma Engineers will not be able to further Study and it will void the Fundamental Right of “Right To Education” of Indian Constitution.

5) A.M.I.E. can be done only by the person who are employed in the Engineering Field, hence an A.M.I.E. passed Engineer will have a Degree backed up with Years of Experience, which makes them much more Industry Ready, than fresher B.E./B.TECH. with No Experience.
3) The Total Cost of completing A.M.I.E. at the present day will be less than Rs. 25000/- whereas that for B.E./B.TECH. is about Rs. 4,50,000/- at minimum.

6) The quality of A.M.I.E. student and Studies can be judged by an practical example that most of the Government Engineers in various sectors are from reputed Institutions like IIT’s, IISc, A.M.I.E. and NIT’s , percentage of B.E./B.TECH. in Government Job other than that from reputed institutions are very less. Government Engineering jobs are very hard to get and Recruitment are highly competitive and this tells the all story of the Quality of the A.M.I.E.

7) Indian Engineering Degrees was not recognized in other countries like USA,UK etc. before the Indian became a member of Washington Accord recently, but A.M.I.E. was recognized from the very start in all other major countries like UK, USA etc.

8) Institution of Engineers (India) has got members who are of Top Class in their Field, and that is why Quality in Technical Knowledge is always maintained to a High Standard in A.M.I.E.

Misconception about A.M.I.E.

1) A.M.I.E. is Distance Education – Not True, A.M.I.E. is a Degree provided by Professional Society
2) There is No Practical and Laboratory Experiments done in A.M.I.E. – Not True, In A.M.I.E. there are 12 Laboratory Experiments covering all subjects feasible to done Laboratory Experiments each containing at least Three to Four Sub Experiments, that means it is equivalent to about 40 Experiments of B.E./B.TECH. including Surveying also. There is also Project Work.

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Job In Government, A Dream of Everyone, say most of one. But it is really hard to get a government job, yes it is very very tough indeed as there is immense competition from all the levels. But believe me it is hard to get but not impossible at all if you are really really in die heart dedication for getting it. Government Job ? people say that everything is corrupted no one can have a job without costing monetarily, may be there are few people who are doing this, but always remember that, if you have true quality then nothing can stop you in your way of achieving your dreams, believe me, you won't have to bribe to get a job if you are excellent, because you are going to outperform everyone else by your capabilities. The main problem is that we want to have a government job, but we are not eager to give that amount of hard work what it takes to achieve that position, and this is the main problem is being the barrier between us and a Government Job. As a Civil Engineer I always dreamed like most of you of getting a government job, but as it is said
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So I think you are ready, and damn focused to fulfill your dream right? This is the very first step you need. I have catagorised all the steps through which if you go, and honestly follow then you have 90% chance of getting a government job, rest of 10% is reserved for the Unlucky Luck. Okay Let's Start.........

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It is manufactured in Concrete Batching Plant, or sometimes in Mobile Concrete Batching Plant. The Concrete Batching Plant automatically calculates the predefined  quantity of materials needed to produces concrete accurately measured by their weight and thoroughly mixed, in the Concrete Batching Plant the concrete produced is of homogenous quality and controlled concrete.
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